Volume 3 (2019)
Evaluation of the Directive 2008/50/EC on Ambient Air Quality
Marina Langkamp & Vinicius Valente Bayma
1 – 25
An analysis of the intervention of the European Union on ambient air quality since 2008 with a specific focus on its effectiveness, efficiency, coherence, relevance, and EU added value.
The EU Directive 2008/50/EC on Ambient Air Quality and Cleaner Air for Europe is one of the actions taken at the European Levelto reach sustainable air quality levels that do not threaten the Environment and EU citizens across EU Member States. After over 10 years, it was considered appropriate to evaluate the EU intervention with the aim to comment, on its shortcomings and to provide policy recommendations.
According to the EU “better regulation guidelines”, every assessment should use the evaluation criteria framework and investigate five main aspects of the intervention, namely effectiveness, efficiency, coherence, relevance and EU added value. Although this framework must guide every evaluation, the level of investigation implemented for each of the five criteria stills depends on the initiative being assessed, as well as the timing and data reliability.
The analysis of the five criteria demonstrated a solid difficulty in implementing EU-wide measures to improve air quality. Although there’s no doubt about the relevance, cohesion and EU-added value aspects of the Directive, its efficiency and effectiveness can be debated.
Life in Plastic, It’s not Fantastic
26 – 43
Since the 1950s, the production of plastic surpassed the production of almost every other material. If the trends in plastic production – and oil consumption – continue at its current rate, estimates are that by 2050 there will be about 12 billion tonnes of plastic litter in the environment and the plastic industry will be responsible for 20% of the world’s total oil consumption. Globally, management of the increasingly large quantity of plastic waste has been challenging, with only 9% of plastic being recycled and almost 80% of plastic being either dumped, disposed in landfills or littered in the environment, resulting in an estimated 4 to 12 million metric tonnes (Mt) of plastic waste in the oceans annually. The improvement of solid waste management systems has not accompanied the rapid growth of plastic production, creating market inefficiencies with serious downstream effects on human health, quality of life and the environment – in particular marine life. Ultimately, there is no “one size-fits-all” solution to the current plastic problem. Governments, businesses and individuals all have a major role to play in paving the way for a circular economy with more sustainable patterns of consumption and a more efficient design of plastic products.
Keywords: Plastic, Solid Waste Management, Environmental Economics, Asia
The Role of Sustainable Design in the Current Refugee Crisis
This research paper discusses the question to which extent sustainable design by female designers can help mitigate humanitarian hardship caused by a refugee crisis.
To examine this question, four sustainable design projects will be analyzed with respect to their ability to meet refugees’ needs and the extent of their sustainability. After the presentation of the designs, several questions will be addressed. Specifically, the economic feasibility and effectiveness of the solutions in targeting issues that arise with a refugee crisis will be evaluated. The paper recognizes limitations of the presented designs in terms of providing structural, macro-level solutions to a refugee crisis. It then concludes by acknowledging the overall potential of sustainable innovation in relieving humanitarian hardship caused by a refugee crisis.