Volume 1 (2017)
Climate Change and Paying Lipservice to Women: What is the Role and Representation of Gender in the COP21 Negotiation
The gathering of global leaders to discuss climate change, known as COP21, in Paris in 2015 has been trumpeted as a success due to the high number of countries that have positively participated. COP21, or the Conference of Parties, is the governing body for the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), an environmental treaty aiming to tackle the problems associated with greenhouse gases. However, there are post-COP21 reports suggesting that despite 123 out of 195 countries so far agreeing to a set of policies to curb climate change, many important elements of the conference were not given the platform promised to them, including gender issues. Indeed, there are significant voices that say gender was strategically marginalised. Yet, prior to Paris in 2015, the COP21 president, French foreign affairs minister Laurent Fabius, claimed gender would be central to the negotiations. This was an acknowledgement that the impacts of climate change are overall more disadvantageous to women and girls. The purpose of the research is to examine the scope and importance of gender in the negotiations through a review of documentation and qualitative content analysis of newspaper articles.
Keywords: Feminism, gender, climate change, COP21, international agreemeent, Paris agreement
Adaptation in Global Climate Governance: Linkages between Intergovernmental Dialogue Forums and the UNFCCC Regarding Adaptation
Douwe de Voogt
This paper investigates how intergovernmental dialogue forums addressing climate change outside of the UNFCCC are linked with the UNFCCC regarding their statements on adaptation. The discussed forums are the Major Economies Forum, G8, and G20. Three analytical points of comparison concerning the UNFCCC are established, namely: the UNFCCC gives adaptation the same priority as mitigation; there is increasing attention for the role of transnational actors in adaptation; and there is a clear distinction between the roles of developing and developed countries. A qualitative content analysis of forums’ documents was conducted to investigate the nature of the linkages between statements related to adaptation. The key conclusion is that there is much overlap regarding adaptation statements between the dialogue forums and the UNFCCC, but there could be complementarity as regards certain adaptation subjects about which the forums made statements prior to the UNFCCC.
Keywords: UNFCCC; intergovernmental forums; climate change adaptation; global governance; institutional fragmentation.
Risk Sharing in the Ciruclar Economy
Activities and research in recent years have clearly shown that the emergence of the circular economy is an economic, rather than only environmental approach (Yuan, 2006; The Ellen MacArthur Foundation, 2012, 2015). Consequently, it becomes crucial to first consider its unique risks and promises for business and economics, and then propose foundations for its adoption as a viable alternative to traditional models. The goal of this article is to research how circular-oriented small and medium-sized enterprises (“SMEs”), due to their unique values and principles, would be able to share risks related to market activities. For this research, six representatives from various circular-oriented SMEs were interviewed based on several relevant risks related to their business models, and they described how they mitigate these risks. The findings revealed a common pattern which was also examined by experts in the circular economy.The results show that a network structure, where companies from related industries and who share a common goal, work together and actively engage customers in companies’ activities, can more effectively share risks. These networks need to be highly transparent and based on trust rather than purely on formal contracts.
Keywords: Sustainability, circular economy, risk, business strategy, SMEs.